Phags-pa Unicode Test Page


Introduction

This page comprises several Phags-pa texts encoded in Unicode, that are intended to be used as a test for Unicode fonts that support the Phags-pa script. In order to view the Phags-pa text you must have an appropriate Unicode Phags-pa font installed. Furthermore, proper shaping and joining behaviour may only occur if your operating system actively supports the Phags-pa script.



Font Configuration

Font Name   Font Size
Microsoft PhagsPa
BabelStone Phags-pa Book
BabelStone Phags-pa Tibetan A
BabelStone Phags-pa Tibetan B
BabelStone Phags-pa Seal
Other : (e.g. "My Phags-pa Font")

 
8 points
10 points
12 points
16 points
20 points
24 points
36 points
48 points
72 points
Other : (e.g. "144")


Sample Text

Horizontal   Vertical
ꡏꡡꡃ ꡣꡡꡙ ꡐꡜꡞ   ꡏꡡꡃ ꡣꡡꡙ ꡐꡜꡞ


Chinese Phags-pa Text

This is a monumental inscription from Hancheng 韓城 in Shaanxi 陝西 province of an imperial edict dated 1275 (龍門神禹廟聖旨碑). The edict is written in Chinese, in both Phags-pa script (upper half) and Han characters (lower half).



Facsimile of Text

Chavannes, Inscriptions et pièces de chancellerie chinoises de l'époque mongole in T'oung Pao Second Series vol.9 (1908) Plate 18



Vertical Left-to-Right Layout

This is the correct orientation and layout direction for Phags-pa text, produced using the CSS writing-mode : tb-lr style.


ꡣꡡꡃ ꡊꡞ
ꡚꡞꡃ ꡆꡞ
ꡄꡃ ꡚꡜꡞꡃ ꡉꡠꡋ ꡁꡞ ꡙꡞ ꡙꡞ
ꡈꡗ ꡤꡟ ꡖꡞꡏ ꡣꡟ ꡄꡟ ꡙꡞ
ꡣꡡꡃ ꡊꡞ ꡚꡞꡃ ꡆꡞ ꡂꡧꡃ ꡄꡗ ꡂꡦꡟꡃ ꡆꡞꡋ ꡔꡞꡋ ꡊꡟꡃ ꡔꡠꡓ ꡅꡟꡃ ꡂꡦꡞ
ꡐꡞꡃ ꡖꡞꡃ ꡆꡞꡋ ꡔꡞꡋ ꡂꡨꡃ ꡚꡠꡋ ꡛꡞꡋ ꡖꡦꡟ ꡌꡞꡃ ꡗꡃ ꡙꡟ
ꡝꡦꡟꡃ ꡣꡡ ꡙꡞꡏ ꡤꡟꡋ ꡜꡧꡦꡋ ꡁꡞ ꡂꡗ
ꡣꡞꡓ ꡉꡟ
ꡗꡦꡓ ꡏꡠꡓ ꡀꡞ ꡖꡦꡟ ꡣꡡ ꡜꡨꡗ ꡣꡟꡃ ꡈꡟꡃ ꡄꡠꡓ ꡚꡞꡃ ꡛꡞꡓ ꡙꡞ
ꡤꡟ ꡜꡞ ꡂꡧ ꡣꡡꡃ ꡚꡦꡟꡋ ꡉꡃ ꡣꡡ ꡈꡟ ꡊꡜꡞꡃ ꡏꡠꡓ ꡝꡦꡟ ꡃꡨꡃ
ꡊꡟꡃ ꡔꡠꡓ ꡅꡟꡃ ꡤꡏ ꡄꡜꡞ ꡆꡠꡓ ꡖꡞ ꡙꡟꡠ ꡂꡨꡃ ꡚꡞꡃ ꡕꡞ ꡖꡞ
ꡀꡞꡓ ꡂꡡꡋ ꡙꡞꡃ ꡜꡨꡞꡃ ꡆꡦ ꡔꡞꡃ ꡃꡨꡃ ꡎꡟꡋ ꡙꡟ ꡂꡡꡋ ꡛꡜꡞ
ꡚꡃ ꡂꡨ ꡣꡟ ꡄꡞ ꡂꡞꡏ ꡖꡠꡓ ꡆꡦꡟ ꡔꡞꡋ ꡓꡟ ꡊꡜꡞꡗ ꡐꡦꡟ ꡣꡧꡗ
ꡀꡞ ꡚꡜꡞ ꡚꡞꡋ ꡂꡦꡟꡋ ꡏ ꡔꡞꡋ ꡊꡜꡞꡃ ꡎꡟ ꡊꡜꡞꡗ ꡖꡋ
ꡜꡨ ꡛꡓ ꡔꡠꡓ ꡆꡦꡟꡋ ꡑꡜꡞ
ꡆꡞ ꡝꡧꡦꡋ ꡚꡞ ꡔꡞ ꡋꡠꡋ ꡔꡞ ꡝꡧꡦ ꡔꡞ


Vertical Right-to-Left Layout

This is the correct orientation for Phags-pa text, but the wrong layout direction, produced using the CSS writing-mode : tb-rl style. To compensate for the incorrect right-to-left layout the order of the lines in the HTML code has been reversed so that the text appears to be laid out correctly.


ꡆꡞ ꡝꡧꡦꡋ ꡚꡞ ꡔꡞ ꡋꡠꡋ ꡔꡞ ꡝꡧꡦ ꡔꡞ
ꡜꡨ ꡛꡓ ꡔꡠꡓ ꡆꡦꡟꡋ ꡑꡜꡞ
ꡀꡞ ꡚꡜꡞ ꡚꡞꡋ ꡂꡦꡟꡋ ꡏ ꡔꡞꡋ ꡊꡜꡞꡃ ꡎꡟ ꡊꡜꡞꡗ ꡖꡋ
ꡚꡃ ꡂꡨ ꡣꡟ ꡄꡞ ꡂꡞꡏ ꡖꡠꡓ ꡆꡦꡟ ꡔꡞꡋ ꡓꡟ ꡊꡜꡞꡗ ꡐꡦꡟ ꡣꡧꡗ
ꡀꡞꡓ ꡂꡡꡋ ꡙꡞꡃ ꡜꡨꡞꡃ ꡆꡦ ꡔꡞꡃ ꡃꡨꡃ ꡎꡟꡋ ꡙꡟ ꡂꡡꡋ ꡛꡜꡞ
ꡊꡟꡃ ꡔꡠꡓ ꡅꡟꡃ ꡤꡏ ꡄꡜꡞ ꡆꡠꡓ ꡖꡞ ꡙꡟꡠ ꡂꡨꡃ ꡚꡞꡃ ꡕꡞ ꡖꡞ
ꡤꡟ ꡜꡞ ꡂꡧ ꡣꡡꡃ ꡚꡦꡟꡋ ꡉꡃ ꡣꡡ ꡈꡟ ꡊꡜꡞꡃ ꡏꡠꡓ ꡝꡦꡟ ꡃꡨꡃ
ꡗꡦꡓ ꡏꡠꡓ ꡀꡞ ꡖꡦꡟ ꡣꡡ ꡜꡨꡗ ꡣꡟꡃ ꡈꡟꡃ ꡄꡠꡓ ꡚꡞꡃ ꡛꡞꡓ ꡙꡞ
ꡣꡞꡓ ꡉꡟ
ꡝꡦꡟꡃ ꡣꡡ ꡙꡞꡏ ꡤꡟꡋ ꡜꡧꡦꡋ ꡁꡞ ꡂꡗ
ꡐꡞꡃ ꡖꡞꡃ ꡆꡞꡋ ꡔꡞꡋ ꡂꡨꡃ ꡚꡠꡋ ꡛꡞꡋ ꡖꡦꡟ ꡌꡞꡃ ꡗꡃ ꡙꡟ
ꡣꡡꡃ ꡊꡞ ꡚꡞꡃ ꡆꡞ ꡂꡧꡃ ꡄꡗ ꡂꡦꡟꡃ ꡆꡞꡋ ꡔꡞꡋ ꡊꡟꡃ ꡔꡠꡓ ꡅꡟꡃ ꡂꡦꡞ
ꡈꡗ ꡤꡟ ꡖꡞꡏ ꡣꡟ ꡄꡟ ꡙꡞ
ꡄꡃ ꡚꡜꡞꡃ ꡉꡠꡋ ꡁꡞ ꡙꡞ ꡙꡞ
ꡚꡞꡃ ꡆꡞ
ꡣꡡꡃ ꡊꡞ


Horizontal Layout

This is the default orientation and layour direction when no CSS writing-mode style is applied.


ꡣꡡꡃ ꡊꡞ
ꡚꡞꡃ ꡆꡞ
ꡄꡃ ꡚꡜꡞꡃ ꡉꡠꡋ ꡁꡞ ꡙꡞ ꡙꡞ
ꡈꡗ ꡤꡟ ꡖꡞꡏ ꡣꡟ ꡄꡟ ꡙꡞ
ꡣꡡꡃ ꡊꡞ ꡚꡞꡃ ꡆꡞ ꡂꡧꡃ ꡄꡗ ꡂꡦꡟꡃ ꡆꡞꡋ ꡔꡞꡋ ꡊꡟꡃ ꡔꡠꡓ ꡅꡟꡃ ꡂꡦꡞ
ꡐꡞꡃ ꡖꡞꡃ ꡆꡞꡋ ꡔꡞꡋ ꡂꡨꡃ ꡚꡠꡋ ꡛꡞꡋ ꡖꡦꡟ ꡌꡞꡃ ꡗꡃ ꡙꡟ
ꡝꡦꡟꡃ ꡣꡡ ꡙꡞꡏ ꡤꡟꡋ ꡜꡧꡦꡋ ꡁꡞ ꡂꡗ
ꡣꡞꡓ ꡉꡟ
ꡗꡦꡓ ꡏꡠꡓ ꡀꡞ ꡖꡦꡟ ꡣꡡ ꡜꡨꡗ ꡣꡟꡃ ꡈꡟꡃ ꡄꡠꡓ ꡚꡞꡃ ꡛꡞꡓ ꡙꡞ
ꡤꡟ ꡜꡞ ꡂꡧ ꡣꡡꡃ ꡚꡦꡟꡋ ꡉꡃ ꡣꡡ ꡈꡟ ꡊꡜꡞꡃ ꡏꡠꡓ ꡝꡦꡟ ꡃꡨꡃ
ꡊꡟꡃ ꡔꡠꡓ ꡅꡟꡃ ꡤꡏ ꡄꡜꡞ ꡆꡠꡓ ꡖꡞ ꡙꡟꡠ ꡂꡨꡃ ꡚꡞꡃ ꡕꡞ ꡖꡞ
ꡀꡞꡓ ꡂꡡꡋ ꡙꡞꡃ ꡜꡨꡞꡃ ꡆꡦ ꡔꡞꡃ ꡃꡨꡃ ꡎꡟꡋ ꡙꡟ ꡂꡡꡋ ꡛꡜꡞ
ꡚꡃ ꡂꡨ ꡣꡟ ꡄꡞ ꡂꡞꡏ ꡖꡠꡓ ꡆꡦꡟ ꡔꡞꡋ ꡓꡟ ꡊꡜꡞꡗ ꡐꡦꡟ ꡣꡧꡗ
ꡀꡞ ꡚꡜꡞ ꡚꡞꡋ ꡂꡦꡟꡋ ꡏ ꡔꡞꡋ ꡊꡜꡞꡃ ꡎꡟ ꡊꡜꡞꡗ ꡖꡋ
ꡜꡨ ꡛꡓ ꡔꡠꡓ ꡆꡦꡟꡋ ꡑꡜꡞ
ꡆꡞ ꡝꡧꡦꡋ ꡚꡞ ꡔꡞ ꡋꡠꡋ ꡔꡞ ꡝꡧꡦ ꡔꡞ


Han Ideographic Text


[皇帝聖旨]
長生天氣力裏
大福廕護助裏
皇帝聖旨光宅宮真人董□中繼
靖應真人姜善□□□陽路
榮河臨汾縣起蓋
后土
堯廟及於河解洪□趙城
修理
伏羲媧皇舜禹湯河□等
廟于仰
董□若冲凡事照依累降
聖旨依
舊管領行者仍仰本路
官司
常加護持禁約諸人毋
得沮壞及使臣□馬人等不
得□下搔擾准此
至元十二年二月日
提點成若安


Mongolian Phags-pa Text

This is a monumental inscription of the Edict of Mangala, dated 1276.



Facsimile of Text

Chavannes, Inscriptions et pièces de chancellerie chinoises de l'époque mongole in T'oung Pao Second Series vol.9 (1908) Plate 19



Vertical Left-to-Right Layout

This is the correct orientation and layout direction for Phags-pa text, produced using the CSS writing-mode : tb-lr style.


〔ꡏꡡꡃ ꡁ〕ꡊꡠꡃ ꡘꡞ ꡗꡞꡋ ꡁꡟ ꡅꡟꡋ ꡊꡟꡘ
ꡢꡖ ꡋꡟ ꡛꡟ ꡊꡟꡘ
ꡣꡡꡃ ꡒꡜꡞ ꡖꡋ ꡛꡞ ꡝꡧꡃ ꡖꡦꡟ ꡂꡦ ꡏ ꡋꡟ ꡅꡠ ꡘꡞ ꡖꡟ ꡊꡟꡋ ꡋꡡ ꡗꡊ ꡊ ꡅꡠ ꡘꡞꡂ ꡜ ꡘ ꡋ ꡎ ꡙ ꡁ ꡊꡟꡋ
ꡚꡞꡙ ꡊꡖꡦ ꡊꡟꡋ ꡊ ꡘꡟ ꡢꡛ ꡊ ꡋꡡ ꡗꡊ ꡊ ꡗꡡꡘ ꡅꡞ ꡢꡟꡋ ꡗ ꡎꡟ ꡢꡟꡋ ꡠꡙ ꡅꡞ ꡋꡦ ꡊꡖꡟꡙ ꡢ ꡢꡟꡠ
ꡎꡞ ꡅꡞꡂ
ꡆꡞꡃ〔ꡂꡞꡛ〕ꡢ ꡋꡟ ꡎ ꡢꡖ ꡋꡟ ꡎ ꡆꡘ ꡙꡞꡢ ꡊꡟꡘ ꡊꡡ ꡗꡞꡊ ꡠꡘ ꡁꡦ ꡖꡟꡊ ꡛꡠꡋ ꡚꡜꡞ ꡃꡟꡊ ꡊꡚ ꡏꡊ
ꡑꡃ〔ꡉꡏ ꡢ ꡊ〕ꡅ ꡎꡟ ꡚꡞ ꡝ ꡙꡞ ꡎ ꡝꡙ ꡎ ꡢꡟꡎ ꡅꡞ ꡘꡞ ꡝꡦꡟ ꡙꡟ ꡝꡦꡟ ꡆꡦꡋ
〔ꡊꡠꡃ〕ꡘꡞ ꡗꡞ ꡆꡙ ꡎ ꡘꡞ ꡆꡟ ꡜꡞ ꡘꡟ ꡖꡦꡘ ꡝꡦꡡ ꡂꡟꡋ ꡝ ꡉꡟ ꡢꡗꡞ ꡂꡖꡦꡁ ꡊꡦꡂ ꡛꡦꡊ ꡝ ꡆꡟ
ꡖꡟꡠ ꡠ ꡊꡟ ꡖꡠ ꡎꡦꡘ ꡎꡦꡡ ꡖꡦ ꡛꡟ ꡟ ꡘꡞ ꡊ ꡋꡟ
ꡆꡘ ꡙꡞ ꡢꡟꡋ ꡗꡡ ꡛꡟ ꡖꡘ ꡑꡃ ꡉꡏ ꡢ ꡊ ꡅ ꡎꡟ ꡚꡞ ꡝ ꡙꡞ 〔ꡎ〕ꡝꡙ ꡎ ꡢꡟꡎ ꡅꡞ ꡘꡞ ꡝꡦꡟ ꡙꡟ ꡝꡦꡟ
ꡆꡦꡋ ꡊꡠꡃ ꡘꡞ ꡗꡞ ꡆꡙ ꡎ ꡘꡞ ꡆꡟ ꡜꡞ ꡘꡟ ꡖꡦꡘ ꡝꡦꡡ ꡂꡗꡋ ꡝ ꡉꡟ ꡢꡗꡞ ꡂꡖꡦꡋ ꡌꡞꡃ ꡗꡃ ꡤꡟ
ꡊ〔…〕ꡂꡟꡋ ꡗꡠꡓ〔ꡏꡠꡓ〕ꡣꡞꡓ ꡉꡟ ꡏꡠꡓ ꡗꡦꡟ ꡝꡧꡃ ꡏꡠꡓ ꡊꡟꡘ ꡝ ꡢꡟꡋ ꡂꡨꡃ ꡆꡞꡋ ꡔꡞ ꡋꡟ
ꡡ ꡘ ꡋ ꡊꡟꡃ ꡆꡞꡋ ꡔꡞ ꡋꡞ ꡛꡠꡋꡚꡜꡞ ꡃꡟ ꡊꡞ ꡝꡦꡡ ꡉꡦꡡ ꡂꡟ ꡙꡦ ꡆꡟ ꡜꡞ ꡘꡟ ꡖꡦꡘ ꡝꡦꡡ
ꡂꡟꡋ ꡝ ꡉꡟ ꡢꡗꡞ ꡂꡖꡦꡋ ꡎ ꡘꡞ ꡆꡟ ꡗ ꡎꡟ ꡖꡗꡞ
ꡎꡞ ꡅꡞꡂ ꡝꡦꡡꡂ ꡎꡦꡠ ꡠ ꡊꡦ ꡋꡟ ꡂꡧꡦꡋ ꡊꡟꡘ ꡂꡠ ꡗꡞꡊ ꡊꡟꡘ ꡝ ꡋꡟ ꡠꡙ ꡅꡞꡋ ꡎꡟ ꡎ ꡖꡟ ꡉꡟ
ꡢꡗꡞ ꡟ ꡙꡖ ꡚꡞ ꡖꡟ ꡛꡟ ꡎꡟ ꡎ ꡘꡞ ꡉꡟ ꡢꡗꡞ ꡢ ꡆꡘ ꡟ ꡛꡟ ꡗ ꡖꡟ ꡁꡦ ꡝ ꡋꡟ ꡎꡟ ꡙꡞ ꡆꡟ
ꡉ ꡉ ꡆꡟ ꡎꡟ ꡝꡎ ꡉꡟ ꡢꡗꡞ ꡠ ꡊꡦ ꡎ ꡛ ꡛꡠꡋ ꡚꡜꡞ ꡃꡟꡊ
ꡎꡞ ꡅꡞꡂ ꡉꡦꡋ ꡂꡖꡦ ꡆꡟ ꡗꡡ ꡛꡟ ꡝꡦꡟ ꡂꡦ ꡖꡟꡠ ꡝꡦꡟꡠ ꡙꡦꡛ ꡎꡟ ꡝꡦꡟꡠ ꡙꡦꡊ ꡉꡟ
ꡂꡦꡠ ꡝꡦꡟꡠ ꡙꡦ ꡊꡟ ꡖꡦ ꡛꡟ ꡝꡦꡟ ꡙꡟ ꡖꡟ ꡝ ꡗꡟ ꡢꡟꡋ ꡏꡟꡊ
ꡎꡞ ꡅꡞꡂ ꡏ ꡋꡟ ꡢꡟ ꡙꡟ ꡢ〔ꡋ〕 ꡆꡞꡙ ꡢ ꡎꡟ ꡘꡟꡋ ꡉꡠ ꡘꡞ
ꡖꡟꡋ ꡕ ꡘ ꡗꡞꡋ ꡢꡡ ꡘꡞꡋ ꡆꡞꡘ
ꡢꡡ ꡖ ꡋ ꡂꡞꡃ ꡄꡠꡓ ꡤꡟ ꡊ
ꡎꡟ ꡂꡟꡠ ꡊꡟꡘ ꡎꡞ ꡅꡞ ꡎꡦꡠ


Vertical Right-to-Left Layout

This is the correct orientation for Phags-pa text, but the wrong layout direction, produced using the CSS writing-mode : tb-rl style. To compensate for the incorrect right-to-left layout the order of the lines in the HTML code has been reversed so that the text appears to be laid out correctly.


ꡎꡟ ꡂꡟꡠ ꡊꡟꡘ ꡎꡞ ꡅꡞ ꡎꡦꡠ
ꡢꡡ ꡖ ꡋ ꡂꡞꡃ ꡄꡠꡓ ꡤꡟ ꡊ
ꡖꡟꡋ ꡕ ꡘ ꡗꡞꡋ ꡢꡡ ꡘꡞꡋ ꡆꡞꡘ
ꡎꡞ ꡅꡞꡂ ꡏ ꡋꡟ ꡢꡟ ꡙꡟ ꡢ〔ꡋ〕 ꡆꡞꡙ ꡢ ꡎꡟ ꡘꡟꡋ ꡉꡠ ꡘꡞ
ꡂꡦꡠ ꡝꡦꡟꡠ ꡙꡦ ꡊꡟ ꡖꡦ ꡛꡟ ꡝꡦꡟ ꡙꡟ ꡖꡟ ꡝ ꡗꡟ ꡢꡟꡋ ꡏꡟꡊ
ꡎꡞ ꡅꡞꡂ ꡉꡦꡋ ꡂꡖꡦ ꡆꡟ ꡗꡡ ꡛꡟ ꡝꡦꡟ ꡂꡦ ꡖꡟꡠ ꡝꡦꡟꡠ ꡙꡦꡛ ꡎꡟ ꡝꡦꡟꡠ ꡙꡦꡊ ꡉꡟ
ꡉ ꡉ ꡆꡟ ꡎꡟ ꡝꡎ ꡉꡟ ꡢꡗꡞ ꡠ ꡊꡦ ꡎ ꡛ ꡛꡠꡋ ꡚꡜꡞ ꡃꡟꡊ
ꡢꡗꡞ ꡟ ꡙꡖ ꡚꡞ ꡖꡟ ꡛꡟ ꡎꡟ ꡎ ꡘꡞ ꡉꡟ ꡢꡗꡞ ꡢ ꡆꡘ ꡟ ꡛꡟ ꡗ ꡖꡟ ꡁꡦ ꡝ ꡋꡟ ꡎꡟ ꡙꡞ ꡆꡟ
ꡎꡞ ꡅꡞꡂ ꡝꡦꡡꡂ ꡎꡦꡠ ꡠ ꡊꡦ ꡋꡟ ꡂꡧꡦꡋ ꡊꡟꡘ ꡂꡠ ꡗꡞꡊ ꡊꡟꡘ ꡝ ꡋꡟ ꡠꡙ ꡅꡞꡋ ꡎꡟ ꡎ ꡖꡟ ꡉꡟ
ꡂꡟꡋ ꡝ ꡉꡟ ꡢꡗꡞ ꡂꡖꡦꡋ ꡎ ꡘꡞ ꡆꡟ ꡗ ꡎꡟ ꡖꡗꡞ
ꡡ ꡘ ꡋ ꡊꡟꡃ ꡆꡞꡋ ꡔꡞ ꡋꡞ ꡛꡠꡋꡚꡜꡞ ꡃꡟ ꡊꡞ ꡝꡦꡡ ꡉꡦꡡ ꡂꡟ ꡙꡦ ꡆꡟ ꡜꡞ ꡘꡟ ꡖꡦꡘ ꡝꡦꡡ
ꡊ〔…〕ꡂꡟꡋ ꡗꡠꡓ〔ꡏꡠꡓ〕ꡣꡞꡓ ꡉꡟ ꡏꡠꡓ ꡗꡦꡟ ꡝꡧꡃ ꡏꡠꡓ ꡊꡟꡘ ꡝ ꡢꡟꡋ ꡂꡨꡃ ꡆꡞꡋ ꡔꡞ ꡋꡟ
ꡆꡦꡋ ꡊꡠꡃ ꡘꡞ ꡗꡞ ꡆꡙ ꡎ ꡘꡞ ꡆꡟ ꡜꡞ ꡘꡟ ꡖꡦꡘ ꡝꡦꡡ ꡂꡗꡋ ꡝ ꡉꡟ ꡢꡗꡞ ꡂꡖꡦꡋ ꡌꡞꡃ ꡗꡃ ꡤꡟ
ꡆꡘ ꡙꡞ ꡢꡟꡋ ꡗꡡ ꡛꡟ ꡖꡘ ꡑꡃ ꡉꡏ ꡢ ꡊ ꡅ ꡎꡟ ꡚꡞ ꡝ ꡙꡞ 〔ꡎ〕ꡝꡙ ꡎ ꡢꡟꡎ ꡅꡞ ꡘꡞ ꡝꡦꡟ ꡙꡟ ꡝꡦꡟ
ꡖꡟꡠ ꡠ ꡊꡟ ꡖꡠ ꡎꡦꡘ ꡎꡦꡡ ꡖꡦ ꡛꡟ ꡟ ꡘꡞ ꡊ ꡋꡟ
〔ꡊꡠꡃ〕ꡘꡞ ꡗꡞ ꡆꡙ ꡎ ꡘꡞ ꡆꡟ ꡜꡞ ꡘꡟ ꡖꡦꡘ ꡝꡦꡡ ꡂꡟꡋ ꡝ ꡉꡟ ꡢꡗꡞ ꡂꡖꡦꡁ ꡊꡦꡂ ꡛꡦꡊ ꡝ ꡆꡟ
ꡑꡃ〔ꡉꡏ ꡢ ꡊ〕ꡅ ꡎꡟ ꡚꡞ ꡝ ꡙꡞ ꡎ ꡝꡙ ꡎ ꡢꡟꡎ ꡅꡞ ꡘꡞ ꡝꡦꡟ ꡙꡟ ꡝꡦꡟ ꡆꡦꡋ
ꡆꡞꡃ〔ꡂꡞꡛ〕ꡢ ꡋꡟ ꡎ ꡢꡖ ꡋꡟ ꡎ ꡆꡘ ꡙꡞꡢ ꡊꡟꡘ ꡊꡡ ꡗꡞꡊ ꡠꡘ ꡁꡦ ꡖꡟꡊ ꡛꡠꡋ ꡚꡜꡞ ꡃꡟꡊ ꡊꡚ ꡏꡊ
ꡎꡞ ꡅꡞꡂ
ꡚꡞꡙ ꡊꡖꡦ ꡊꡟꡋ ꡊ ꡘꡟ ꡢꡛ ꡊ ꡋꡡ ꡗꡊ ꡊ ꡗꡡꡘ ꡅꡞ ꡢꡟꡋ ꡗ ꡎꡟ ꡢꡟꡋ ꡠꡙ ꡅꡞ ꡋꡦ ꡊꡖꡟꡙ ꡢ ꡢꡟꡠ
ꡣꡡꡃ ꡒꡜꡞ ꡖꡋ ꡛꡞ ꡝꡧꡃ ꡖꡦꡟ ꡂꡦ ꡏ ꡋꡟ ꡅꡠ ꡘꡞ ꡖꡟ ꡊꡟꡋ ꡋꡡ ꡗꡊ ꡊ ꡅꡠ ꡘꡞꡂ ꡜ ꡘ ꡋ ꡎ ꡙ ꡁ ꡊꡟꡋ
ꡢꡖ ꡋꡟ ꡛꡟ ꡊꡟꡘ
〔ꡏꡡꡃ ꡁ〕ꡊꡠꡃ ꡘꡞ ꡗꡞꡋ ꡁꡟ ꡅꡟꡋ ꡊꡟꡘ


Horizontal Layout

This is the default orientation and layour direction when no CSS writing-mode style is applied.


〔ꡏꡡꡃ ꡁ〕ꡊꡠꡃ ꡘꡞ ꡗꡞꡋ ꡁꡟ ꡅꡟꡋ ꡊꡟꡘ
ꡢꡖ ꡋꡟ ꡛꡟ ꡊꡟꡘ
ꡣꡡꡃ ꡒꡜꡞ ꡖꡋ ꡛꡞ ꡝꡧꡃ ꡖꡦꡟ ꡂꡦ ꡏ ꡋꡟ ꡅꡠ ꡘꡞ ꡖꡟ ꡊꡟꡋ ꡋꡡ ꡗꡊ ꡊ ꡅꡠ ꡘꡞꡂ ꡜ ꡘ ꡋ ꡎ ꡙ ꡁ ꡊꡟꡋ
ꡚꡞꡙ ꡊꡖꡦ ꡊꡟꡋ ꡊ ꡘꡟ ꡢꡛ ꡊ ꡋꡡ ꡗꡊ ꡊ ꡗꡡꡘ ꡅꡞ ꡢꡟꡋ ꡗ ꡎꡟ ꡢꡟꡋ ꡠꡙ ꡅꡞ ꡋꡦ ꡊꡖꡟꡙ ꡢ ꡢꡟꡠ
ꡎꡞ ꡅꡞꡂ
ꡆꡞꡃ〔ꡂꡞꡛ〕ꡢ ꡋꡟ ꡎ ꡢꡖ ꡋꡟ ꡎ ꡆꡘ ꡙꡞꡢ ꡊꡟꡘ ꡊꡡ ꡗꡞꡊ ꡠꡘ ꡁꡦ ꡖꡟꡊ ꡛꡠꡋ ꡚꡜꡞ ꡃꡟꡊ ꡊꡚ ꡏꡊ
ꡑꡃ〔ꡉꡏ ꡢ ꡊ〕ꡅ ꡎꡟ ꡚꡞ ꡝ ꡙꡞ ꡎ ꡝꡙ ꡎ ꡢꡟꡎ ꡅꡞ ꡘꡞ ꡝꡦꡟ ꡙꡟ ꡝꡦꡟ ꡆꡦꡋ
〔ꡊꡠꡃ〕ꡘꡞ ꡗꡞ ꡆꡙ ꡎ ꡘꡞ ꡆꡟ ꡜꡞ ꡘꡟ ꡖꡦꡘ ꡝꡦꡡ ꡂꡟꡋ ꡝ ꡉꡟ ꡢꡗꡞ ꡂꡖꡦꡁ ꡊꡦꡂ ꡛꡦꡊ ꡝ ꡆꡟ
ꡖꡟꡠ ꡠ ꡊꡟ ꡖꡠ ꡎꡦꡘ ꡎꡦꡡ ꡖꡦ ꡛꡟ ꡟ ꡘꡞ ꡊ ꡋꡟ
ꡆꡘ ꡙꡞ ꡢꡟꡋ ꡗꡡ ꡛꡟ ꡖꡘ ꡑꡃ ꡉꡏ ꡢ ꡊ ꡅ ꡎꡟ ꡚꡞ ꡝ ꡙꡞ 〔ꡎ〕ꡝꡙ ꡎ ꡢꡟꡎ ꡅꡞ ꡘꡞ ꡝꡦꡟ ꡙꡟ ꡝꡦꡟ
ꡆꡦꡋ ꡊꡠꡃ ꡘꡞ ꡗꡞ ꡆꡙ ꡎ ꡘꡞ ꡆꡟ ꡜꡞ ꡘꡟ ꡖꡦꡘ ꡝꡦꡡ ꡂꡗꡋ ꡝ ꡉꡟ ꡢꡗꡞ ꡂꡖꡦꡋ ꡌꡞꡃ ꡗꡃ ꡤꡟ
ꡊ〔…〕ꡂꡟꡋ ꡗꡠꡓ〔ꡏꡠꡓ〕ꡣꡞꡓ ꡉꡟ ꡏꡠꡓ ꡗꡦꡟ ꡝꡧꡃ ꡏꡠꡓ ꡊꡟꡘ ꡝ ꡢꡟꡋ ꡂꡨꡃ ꡆꡞꡋ ꡔꡞ ꡋꡟ
ꡡ ꡘ ꡋ ꡊꡟꡃ ꡆꡞꡋ ꡔꡞ ꡋꡞ ꡛꡠꡋꡚꡜꡞ ꡃꡟ ꡊꡞ ꡝꡦꡡ ꡉꡦꡡ ꡂꡟ ꡙꡦ ꡆꡟ ꡜꡞ ꡘꡟ ꡖꡦꡘ ꡝꡦꡡ
ꡂꡟꡋ ꡝ ꡉꡟ ꡢꡗꡞ ꡂꡖꡦꡋ ꡎ ꡘꡞ ꡆꡟ ꡗ ꡎꡟ ꡖꡗꡞ
ꡎꡞ ꡅꡞꡂ ꡝꡦꡡꡂ ꡎꡦꡠ ꡠ ꡊꡦ ꡋꡟ ꡂꡧꡦꡋ ꡊꡟꡘ ꡂꡠ ꡗꡞꡊ ꡊꡟꡘ ꡝ ꡋꡟ ꡠꡙ ꡅꡞꡋ ꡎꡟ ꡎ ꡖꡟ ꡉꡟ
ꡢꡗꡞ ꡟ ꡙꡖ ꡚꡞ ꡖꡟ ꡛꡟ ꡎꡟ ꡎ ꡘꡞ ꡉꡟ ꡢꡗꡞ ꡢ ꡆꡘ ꡟ ꡛꡟ ꡗ ꡖꡟ ꡁꡦ ꡝ ꡋꡟ ꡎꡟ ꡙꡞ ꡆꡟ
ꡉ ꡉ ꡆꡟ ꡎꡟ ꡝꡎ ꡉꡟ ꡢꡗꡞ ꡠ ꡊꡦ ꡎ ꡛ ꡛꡠꡋ ꡚꡜꡞ ꡃꡟꡊ
ꡎꡞ ꡅꡞꡂ ꡉꡦꡋ ꡂꡖꡦ ꡆꡟ ꡗꡡ ꡛꡟ ꡝꡦꡟ ꡂꡦ ꡖꡟꡠ ꡝꡦꡟꡠ ꡙꡦꡛ ꡎꡟ ꡝꡦꡟꡠ ꡙꡦꡊ ꡉꡟ
ꡂꡦꡠ ꡝꡦꡟꡠ ꡙꡦ ꡊꡟ ꡖꡦ ꡛꡟ ꡝꡦꡟ ꡙꡟ ꡖꡟ ꡝ ꡗꡟ ꡢꡟꡋ ꡏꡟꡊ
ꡎꡞ ꡅꡞꡂ ꡏ ꡋꡟ ꡢꡟ ꡙꡟ ꡢ〔ꡋ〕 ꡆꡞꡙ ꡢ ꡎꡟ ꡘꡟꡋ ꡉꡠ ꡘꡞ
ꡖꡟꡋ ꡕ ꡘ ꡗꡞꡋ ꡢꡡ ꡘꡞꡋ ꡆꡞꡘ
ꡢꡡ ꡖ ꡋ ꡂꡞꡃ ꡄꡠꡓ ꡤꡟ ꡊ
ꡎꡟ ꡂꡟꡠ ꡊꡟꡘ ꡎꡞ ꡅꡞ ꡎꡦꡠ


English Translation

By the strength of [eternal] Heaven and by the grandeur of the qaɣan, our, Huang-tzu, King of An-hsi's word.

A writ, addressed to military commanders, military personnel, daruɣa's of cities and villages. to noyan's, and to messengers going to and fro.

In the edicts of Chinggis qan and Qaɣan, it was stated that Buddhist, Christian, Taoist and Mohammedan clergy, not observing any tribute or taxes other than land and commercial taxes. are to pray to Heaven and pronounce benedictions.

Now, stating that they, in accordance with the previous edict, not observing any tribute or taxes other than land and commercial taxes. should pray to Heaven and pronounce benedictions, we have issued a writ to be retained, stating that Tung Chen-jen, instead of Chiang Chen-jen, who is in Yao miao, Hou t'u miao and Yü wang miao, situated in P'ing tang fu, is to pronounce benedictions in the capacity of senior among the Taoists.

Messengers must not stop at their temples and dwellings. They must not take relay horses and provisions.

They must not seize or expropriate lands, water or anything which is theirs.

Likewise, these Taoists must not commit unlawful deeds, saying they have a writ.

If they do so, shall they not be afraid?

Our letter was written on the twenty-sixth of the first spring month, Year of the Mouse [1276], while staying at Ching chao fu.

Nicholas Poppe (John R. Krueger trans. and ed.), The Mongolian Monuments in ḤP'AGS-PA Script (Wiesbaden : Otto Harrassowitz, 1957) Page 47.



Sanskrit Phags-pa Text

This is a Sanskrit Buddhist text (the Uṣṇīṣavijaya-dhāraṇī) written in the Phags-pa script that is engraved on the east wall of the "Cloud Platform" 雲台 at Juyong Guan 居庸關 at the Great Wall north-west of Beijing, dated 1345.



Facsimile of Text

Murata Jiro 村田治郎 (ed.)., Chü-Yung-Kuan 居庸關 : The Buddhist Arch of the Fourteenth Century A.D. at the Pass of the Great Wall Northwest of Peking
(Kyoto : Kyoto University Faculty of Engineering 京都大學工學部, 1957)



Vertical Left-to-Right Layout

This is the correct orientation and layout direction for Phags-pa text, produced using the CSS writing-mode : tb-lr style.


〔ꡳꡡ〕ꡳꡎꡜꡖꡱꡟ ꡛꡧꡖ ꡜꡖ ᠅ ꡳꡡ ꡋ ꡏꡡ ꡎꡜ ꡂ ꡓ〔ꡈꡠ〕ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡈꡱꡗꡞ ꡙꡡ ꡀꡨ ᠃ ꡎꡱ ꡈꡞ〔ꡓꡞ〕ꡚꡞꡚ ꡩꡖ ꡗ ᠃ ꡎꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡖ ꡗ ꡈꡠ ꡋ ꡏ
〔…〕ꡗ ꡉꡖ ꡳꡡ ꡳꡎꡜꡖꡱꡟ ꡳꡎꡜꡖꡘꡟ ꡳꡎꡜꡖꡘꡟ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡝ ꡛ ꡏ ᠂ ꡛ ꡏꡋ ꡈ ᠃ 〔ꡝ〕
ꡎꡜꡖ ꡛ ꡛꡎꡖ ꡘ ꡬ ꡂ ꡈꡞ ꡂ ꡂ〔ꡋ ꡛꡧ〕ꡎꡜꡖ ꡓ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ᠂ ꡝ ꡎꡜꡞ ꡚꡞꡋ ꡐꡋ ꡈꡟ ꡳꡏꡖ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ
〔…〕ꡈ ꡛꡟ ꡂ ꡈ ᠃ ꡓ ꡘ ꡓ ꡐ ꡋ〔…〕ꡚꡠ ꡀꡖꡠꡘ ᠃ ꡏ ꡜꡖ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡖ ꡏꡋ ꡈꡱ ꡌ ꡊꡖꡠ ᠃
〔ꡝꡖ〕ꡜ ꡘ ꡝꡖ ꡜ ꡘ ᠂ ꡏ ꡏ ꡝ ꡗꡟꡘ ꡛꡋ ꡊ〔… ꡬꡞ ᠂ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ꡚꡡ〕ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡂ ꡂ ꡋ
ꡛꡧ ꡎꡜꡖ ꡓ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ꡟꡚ ꡬꡞ 〔… ꡓꡞ ꡆ ꡗ ᠃ ꡍ ꡘꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ〕ꡊꡜꡠ ꡛ ꡜ ꡛꡱ ᠃ ꡘꡚ ꡏꡞ ꡛꡋ ꡐꡡ ꡊꡞ ꡈꡠ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡈ
ꡉꡖ ꡂ ꡈ ᠃ ꡝ ꡓ ꡙꡡ ꡀꡞ ꡋꡞ ᠂ ꡚ ꡩꡖ ꡌ 〔… ꡈ ᠃ ꡌ ꡘꡞ〕ꡌꡖꡟ ꡘ ꡬꡞ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡈ ꡉꡖ ꡂ ꡈ ᠃ ꡏꡖ ꡈꡞ ꡊ ꡚ ꡎꡜꡟ
ꡏꡞ ᠃ ꡌꡱ ꡈꡞꡚ ꡪꡞ ꡈꡠ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡈ ꡉꡖ〔… ꡈ ᠃ ꡜꡱꡞ ꡊ ꡗ〕᠃ ꡝ ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡪꡖ〔ꡋ〕᠂ ꡝ ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡪꡞ ꡈꡠ ᠃ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡠ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡠ ᠃ ꡏ
ꡜꡖ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡠ ᠃ ꡎ ꡒꡱ ꡀꡖ ꡗ ᠃ ꡳꡛ ꡜ〔… ꡌ〕ꡘꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡀꡘ ꡏ ᠃ ꡝ ꡓ ꡘ ꡬ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ᠃ ꡌꡱ
ꡈꡞ ꡋꡞ ꡓꡘ ꡈ ꡗ ᠃ ꡏ ꡏ ꡝ ꡗꡟꡘ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ 〔ꡊꡜꡠ ᠃〕ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡈ ꡉꡖ ꡂ ꡈ ꡛ ꡏ〔ꡗ〕᠃ ꡝ ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡪꡖ︀ ꡋ ᠃ ꡝ ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡪꡞ ꡈꡠ ᠂ ꡳꡡ
ꡏꡟ ꡋꡞ ꡏꡟ ꡋꡞ ᠂ ꡏ ꡜꡖ ꡏꡟ ꡋꡞ ᠂ ꡓꡞ ꡏꡟ 〔ꡋꡞ ᠂〕ꡓꡞ ꡏꡟ ꡋꡞ ᠂ ꡏ ꡜꡖ ꡓꡞ ꡏꡟ ꡋꡞ ᠂ ꡏ ꡈꡞ ꡏ ꡈꡞ ᠃ ꡏ ꡜꡖ ꡏ ꡈꡞ ᠃ ꡏ ꡏ
ꡈꡞ ꡛꡟ ꡏ ꡈꡞ ᠃ ꡈ ꡉ ꡈꡖ ᠃ ꡎꡜꡟ ꡈ ꡀ〔…〕ꡘꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡛꡍꡟ ꡩ ᠃ ꡎꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ᠃ ꡜꡠ ꡜꡠ ꡒ ꡗ ꡒ ꡗ ᠃
ꡓꡞ ꡒ ꡗ ꡓꡞ ꡒ ꡗ ᠃ ꡛꡏꡖ ꡘ ꡛꡏꡖ ꡘ ꡛ〔ꡍꡖ ꡘ〕ꡛꡍꡖ ꡘ ᠃ ꡛꡍꡖ ꡘ ꡗ ꡛꡍꡖ ꡘ ꡗ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡎꡟꡊ ꡊꡜ ꡝ ꡊꡜꡚ ꡪꡖ ꡋ
〔ꡝ〕ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡪꡞ ꡈꡠ ᠃ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊ〔ꡜꡠ ᠃〕ꡎꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ꡎꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ᠃ ꡎ ꡒꡱꡠ ꡎ ꡒꡱꡠ ᠃ ꡏ ꡜꡖ ꡎ ꡒꡱꡠ ᠃ ꡛꡟ ꡎ ꡒꡱꡠ ᠃ ꡎ
ꡒꡱꡠ ꡂꡘ ꡎꡜꡠ ᠂ ꡒ ꡗ ꡂꡘ ꡎꡜꡠ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡒ ꡗ ꡂꡘ ꡎꡜꡠ ꡎ ꡒꡱ ꡒꡧ ꡙ ꡂꡘ ꡎꡜꡠ ᠃ ꡎ ꡒꡱ ꡟꡊ ꡎꡜ ꡓꡠ ᠃ ꡎ ꡒꡱ ꡛꡏ ꡎꡜ ꡓꡠ ᠃ ꡎ
ꡒꡱꡠ ꡎ ꡒꡱꡞ ꡋꡞ ᠃ ꡎ ꡒꡱꡏ ꡎꡜ ꡓ ꡈꡟ ᠃ ꡏ ꡏ ꡚ ꡘꡞ ꡳꡘ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ᠃ ꡛ ꡈꡧꡖ ꡋꡖꡋ ꡐ ᠃ ꡀꡖ ꡗ ꡌ ꡘꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡞꡘ ᠃ ꡎꡜ ꡓ ꡈꡟ ᠃
〔…〕ꡊꡖ ꡏꡠ᠂ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡂ ꡈꡞ ᠃ ꡌ ꡘꡞ ꡚꡟꡘ ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡐ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡈ ꡉꡖ ꡂ ꡈꡚ ꡐ ꡳꡏꡖꡏ ᠃ ꡛꡋ ꡝꡚ ꡓꡖ ꡛ ꡗꡋ ꡈꡟ ᠃ ꡎꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡨ ꡎꡟꡊ
ꡊꡜꡨ ᠂ ꡛꡞꡊ ꡊꡜꡨ ꡛꡞꡊ ꡊꡜꡨ ᠃ ꡎꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ꡎꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡎꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ꡓꡞ ꡎꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡏꡡ ꡐ ꡗ ꡏꡡ ꡐ ꡗ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡏꡡ ꡐ ꡗ ꡓꡞ ꡏꡡ ꡐ ꡗ ᠃ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ
〔ꡗ〕ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡛ ꡏꡋ ꡈꡖ ꡏꡡ ꡐ ꡗ ꡏꡡ ꡐ ꡗ ᠃ ꡛ ꡏꡋ ꡈ ꡘꡚ ꡏꡞ ꡎ ꡘꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡞ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡈ ꡉꡖ ꡂ
〔ꡈ〕ꡜꡱꡞ ꡊ ꡗ ᠃ ꡝ ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡪꡖ ꡋ ꡝ ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡪꡖ〔ꡋ 〕᠃ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡠ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡠ ᠂ ꡏ ꡜꡖ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡠ ᠃ ꡏ ꡜꡖ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡖ ꡏꡋ ꡈꡱ ꡌ ꡊꡖꡠ ꡛꡧꡖ ꡜꡖ


Vertical Right-to-Left Layout

This is the correct orientation for Phags-pa text, but the wrong layout direction, produced using the CSS writing-mode : tb-rl style. To compensate for the incorrect right-to-left layout the order of the lines in the HTML code has been reversed so that the text appears to be laid out correctly.


〔ꡈ〕ꡜꡱꡞ ꡊ ꡗ ᠃ ꡝ ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡪꡖ ꡋ ꡝ ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡪꡖ〔ꡋ 〕᠃ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡠ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡠ ᠂ ꡏ ꡜꡖ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡠ ᠃ ꡏ ꡜꡖ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡖ ꡏꡋ ꡈꡱ ꡌ ꡊꡖꡠ ꡛꡧꡖ ꡜꡖ
〔ꡗ〕ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡛ ꡏꡋ ꡈꡖ ꡏꡡ ꡐ ꡗ ꡏꡡ ꡐ ꡗ ᠃ ꡛ ꡏꡋ ꡈ ꡘꡚ ꡏꡞ ꡎ ꡘꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡞ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡈ ꡉꡖ ꡂ
ꡊꡜꡨ ᠂ ꡛꡞꡊ ꡊꡜꡨ ꡛꡞꡊ ꡊꡜꡨ ᠃ ꡎꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ꡎꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡎꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ꡓꡞ ꡎꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡏꡡ ꡐ ꡗ ꡏꡡ ꡐ ꡗ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡏꡡ ꡐ ꡗ ꡓꡞ ꡏꡡ ꡐ ꡗ ᠃ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ
〔…〕ꡊꡖ ꡏꡠ᠂ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡂ ꡈꡞ ᠃ ꡌ ꡘꡞ ꡚꡟꡘ ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡐ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡈ ꡉꡖ ꡂ ꡈꡚ ꡐ ꡳꡏꡖꡏ ᠃ ꡛꡋ ꡝꡚ ꡓꡖ ꡛ ꡗꡋ ꡈꡟ ᠃ ꡎꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡨ ꡎꡟꡊ
ꡒꡱꡠ ꡎ ꡒꡱꡞ ꡋꡞ ᠃ ꡎ ꡒꡱꡏ ꡎꡜ ꡓ ꡈꡟ ᠃ ꡏ ꡏ ꡚ ꡘꡞ ꡳꡘ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ᠃ ꡛ ꡈꡧꡖ ꡋꡖꡋ ꡐ ᠃ ꡀꡖ ꡗ ꡌ ꡘꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡞꡘ ᠃ ꡎꡜ ꡓ ꡈꡟ ᠃
ꡒꡱꡠ ꡂꡘ ꡎꡜꡠ ᠂ ꡒ ꡗ ꡂꡘ ꡎꡜꡠ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡒ ꡗ ꡂꡘ ꡎꡜꡠ ꡎ ꡒꡱ ꡒꡧ ꡙ ꡂꡘ ꡎꡜꡠ ᠃ ꡎ ꡒꡱ ꡟꡊ ꡎꡜ ꡓꡠ ᠃ ꡎ ꡒꡱ ꡛꡏ ꡎꡜ ꡓꡠ ᠃ ꡎ
〔ꡝ〕ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡪꡞ ꡈꡠ ᠃ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊ〔ꡜꡠ ᠃〕ꡎꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ꡎꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ᠃ ꡎ ꡒꡱꡠ ꡎ ꡒꡱꡠ ᠃ ꡏ ꡜꡖ ꡎ ꡒꡱꡠ ᠃ ꡛꡟ ꡎ ꡒꡱꡠ ᠃ ꡎ
ꡓꡞ ꡒ ꡗ ꡓꡞ ꡒ ꡗ ᠃ ꡛꡏꡖ ꡘ ꡛꡏꡖ ꡘ ꡛ〔ꡍꡖ ꡘ〕ꡛꡍꡖ ꡘ ᠃ ꡛꡍꡖ ꡘ ꡗ ꡛꡍꡖ ꡘ ꡗ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡎꡟꡊ ꡊꡜ ꡝ ꡊꡜꡚ ꡪꡖ ꡋ
ꡈꡞ ꡛꡟ ꡏ ꡈꡞ ᠃ ꡈ ꡉ ꡈꡖ ᠃ ꡎꡜꡟ ꡈ ꡀ〔…〕ꡘꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡛꡍꡟ ꡩ ᠃ ꡎꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ᠃ ꡜꡠ ꡜꡠ ꡒ ꡗ ꡒ ꡗ ᠃
ꡏꡟ ꡋꡞ ꡏꡟ ꡋꡞ ᠂ ꡏ ꡜꡖ ꡏꡟ ꡋꡞ ᠂ ꡓꡞ ꡏꡟ 〔ꡋꡞ ᠂〕ꡓꡞ ꡏꡟ ꡋꡞ ᠂ ꡏ ꡜꡖ ꡓꡞ ꡏꡟ ꡋꡞ ᠂ ꡏ ꡈꡞ ꡏ ꡈꡞ ᠃ ꡏ ꡜꡖ ꡏ ꡈꡞ ᠃ ꡏ ꡏ
ꡈꡞ ꡋꡞ ꡓꡘ ꡈ ꡗ ᠃ ꡏ ꡏ ꡝ ꡗꡟꡘ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ 〔ꡊꡜꡠ ᠃〕ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡈ ꡉꡖ ꡂ ꡈ ꡛ ꡏ〔ꡗ〕᠃ ꡝ ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡪꡖ︀ ꡋ ᠃ ꡝ ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡪꡞ ꡈꡠ ᠂ ꡳꡡ
ꡜꡖ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡠ ᠃ ꡎ ꡒꡱ ꡀꡖ ꡗ ᠃ ꡳꡛ ꡜ〔… ꡌ〕ꡘꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡀꡘ ꡏ ᠃ ꡝ ꡓ ꡘ ꡬ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ᠃ ꡌꡱ
ꡏꡞ ᠃ ꡌꡱ ꡈꡞꡚ ꡪꡞ ꡈꡠ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡈ ꡉꡖ〔… ꡈ ᠃ ꡜꡱꡞ ꡊ ꡗ〕᠃ ꡝ ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡪꡖ〔ꡋ〕᠂ ꡝ ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡪꡞ ꡈꡠ ᠃ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡠ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡠ ᠃ ꡏ
ꡉꡖ ꡂ ꡈ ᠃ ꡝ ꡓ ꡙꡡ ꡀꡞ ꡋꡞ ᠂ ꡚ ꡩꡖ ꡌ 〔… ꡈ ᠃ ꡌ ꡘꡞ〕ꡌꡖꡟ ꡘ ꡬꡞ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡈ ꡉꡖ ꡂ ꡈ ᠃ ꡏꡖ ꡈꡞ ꡊ ꡚ ꡎꡜꡟ
ꡛꡧ ꡎꡜꡖ ꡓ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ꡟꡚ ꡬꡞ 〔… ꡓꡞ ꡆ ꡗ ᠃ ꡍ ꡘꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ〕ꡊꡜꡠ ꡛ ꡜ ꡛꡱ ᠃ ꡘꡚ ꡏꡞ ꡛꡋ ꡐꡡ ꡊꡞ ꡈꡠ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡈ
〔ꡝꡖ〕ꡜ ꡘ ꡝꡖ ꡜ ꡘ ᠂ ꡏ ꡏ ꡝ ꡗꡟꡘ ꡛꡋ ꡊ〔… ꡬꡞ ᠂ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ꡚꡡ〕ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡂ ꡂ ꡋ
〔…〕ꡈ ꡛꡟ ꡂ ꡈ ᠃ ꡓ ꡘ ꡓ ꡐ ꡋ〔…〕ꡚꡠ ꡀꡖꡠꡘ ᠃ ꡏ ꡜꡖ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡖ ꡏꡋ ꡈꡱ ꡌ ꡊꡖꡠ ᠃
ꡎꡜꡖ ꡛ ꡛꡎꡖ ꡘ ꡬ ꡂ ꡈꡞ ꡂ ꡂ〔ꡋ ꡛꡧ〕ꡎꡜꡖ ꡓ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ᠂ ꡝ ꡎꡜꡞ ꡚꡞꡋ ꡐꡋ ꡈꡟ ꡳꡏꡖ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ
〔…〕ꡗ ꡉꡖ ꡳꡡ ꡳꡎꡜꡖꡱꡟ ꡳꡎꡜꡖꡘꡟ ꡳꡎꡜꡖꡘꡟ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡝ ꡛ ꡏ ᠂ ꡛ ꡏꡋ ꡈ ᠃ 〔ꡝ〕
〔ꡳꡡ〕ꡳꡎꡜꡖꡱꡟ ꡛꡧꡖ ꡜꡖ ᠅ ꡳꡡ ꡋ ꡏꡡ ꡎꡜ ꡂ ꡓ〔ꡈꡠ〕ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡈꡱꡗꡞ ꡙꡡ ꡀꡨ ᠃ ꡎꡱ ꡈꡞ〔ꡓꡞ〕ꡚꡞꡚ ꡩꡖ ꡗ ᠃ ꡎꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡖ ꡗ ꡈꡠ ꡋ ꡏ


Horizontal Layout

This is the default orientation and layour direction when no CSS writing-mode style is applied.


〔ꡳꡡ〕ꡳꡎꡜꡖꡱꡟ ꡛꡧꡖ ꡜꡖ ᠅ ꡳꡡ ꡋ ꡏꡡ ꡎꡜ ꡂ ꡓ〔ꡈꡠ〕ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡈꡱꡗꡞ ꡙꡡ ꡀꡨ ᠃ ꡎꡱ ꡈꡞ〔ꡓꡞ〕ꡚꡞꡚ ꡩꡖ ꡗ ᠃ ꡎꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡖ ꡗ ꡈꡠ ꡋ ꡏ
〔…〕ꡗ ꡉꡖ ꡳꡡ ꡳꡎꡜꡖꡱꡟ ꡳꡎꡜꡖꡘꡟ ꡳꡎꡜꡖꡘꡟ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡝ ꡛ ꡏ ᠂ ꡛ ꡏꡋ ꡈ ᠃ 〔ꡝ〕
ꡎꡜꡖ ꡛ ꡛꡎꡖ ꡘ ꡬ ꡂ ꡈꡞ ꡂ ꡂ〔ꡋ ꡛꡧ〕ꡎꡜꡖ ꡓ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ᠂ ꡝ ꡎꡜꡞ ꡚꡞꡋ ꡐꡋ ꡈꡟ ꡳꡏꡖ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ
〔…〕ꡈ ꡛꡟ ꡂ ꡈ ᠃ ꡓ ꡘ ꡓ ꡐ ꡋ〔…〕ꡚꡠ ꡀꡖꡠꡘ ᠃ ꡏ ꡜꡖ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡖ ꡏꡋ ꡈꡱ ꡌ ꡊꡖꡠ ᠃
〔ꡝꡖ〕ꡜ ꡘ ꡝꡖ ꡜ ꡘ ᠂ ꡏ ꡏ ꡝ ꡗꡟꡘ ꡛꡋ ꡊ〔… ꡬꡞ ᠂ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ꡚꡡ〕ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡂ ꡂ ꡋ
ꡛꡧ ꡎꡜꡖ ꡓ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ꡟꡚ ꡬꡞ 〔… ꡓꡞ ꡆ ꡗ ᠃ ꡍ ꡘꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ〕ꡊꡜꡠ ꡛ ꡜ ꡛꡱ ᠃ ꡘꡚ ꡏꡞ ꡛꡋ ꡐꡡ ꡊꡞ ꡈꡠ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡈ
ꡉꡖ ꡂ ꡈ ᠃ ꡝ ꡓ ꡙꡡ ꡀꡞ ꡋꡞ ᠂ ꡚ ꡩꡖ ꡌ 〔… ꡈ ᠃ ꡌ ꡘꡞ〕ꡌꡖꡟ ꡘ ꡬꡞ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡈ ꡉꡖ ꡂ ꡈ ᠃ ꡏꡖ ꡈꡞ ꡊ ꡚ ꡎꡜꡟ
ꡏꡞ ᠃ ꡌꡱ ꡈꡞꡚ ꡪꡞ ꡈꡠ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡈ ꡉꡖ〔… ꡈ ᠃ ꡜꡱꡞ ꡊ ꡗ〕᠃ ꡝ ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡪꡖ〔ꡋ〕᠂ ꡝ ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡪꡞ ꡈꡠ ᠃ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡠ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡠ ᠃ ꡏ
ꡜꡖ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡠ ᠃ ꡎ ꡒꡱ ꡀꡖ ꡗ ᠃ ꡳꡛ ꡜ〔… ꡌ〕ꡘꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡀꡘ ꡏ ᠃ ꡝ ꡓ ꡘ ꡬ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ᠃ ꡌꡱ
ꡈꡞ ꡋꡞ ꡓꡘ ꡈ ꡗ ᠃ ꡏ ꡏ ꡝ ꡗꡟꡘ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ 〔ꡊꡜꡠ ᠃〕ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡈ ꡉꡖ ꡂ ꡈ ꡛ ꡏ〔ꡗ〕᠃ ꡝ ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡪꡖ︀ ꡋ ᠃ ꡝ ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡪꡞ ꡈꡠ ᠂ ꡳꡡ
ꡏꡟ ꡋꡞ ꡏꡟ ꡋꡞ ᠂ ꡏ ꡜꡖ ꡏꡟ ꡋꡞ ᠂ ꡓꡞ ꡏꡟ 〔ꡋꡞ ᠂〕ꡓꡞ ꡏꡟ ꡋꡞ ᠂ ꡏ ꡜꡖ ꡓꡞ ꡏꡟ ꡋꡞ ᠂ ꡏ ꡈꡞ ꡏ ꡈꡞ ᠃ ꡏ ꡜꡖ ꡏ ꡈꡞ ᠃ ꡏ ꡏ
ꡈꡞ ꡛꡟ ꡏ ꡈꡞ ᠃ ꡈ ꡉ ꡈꡖ ᠃ ꡎꡜꡟ ꡈ ꡀ〔…〕ꡘꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡛꡍꡟ ꡩ ᠃ ꡎꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ᠃ ꡜꡠ ꡜꡠ ꡒ ꡗ ꡒ ꡗ ᠃
ꡓꡞ ꡒ ꡗ ꡓꡞ ꡒ ꡗ ᠃ ꡛꡏꡖ ꡘ ꡛꡏꡖ ꡘ ꡛ〔ꡍꡖ ꡘ〕ꡛꡍꡖ ꡘ ᠃ ꡛꡍꡖ ꡘ ꡗ ꡛꡍꡖ ꡘ ꡗ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡎꡟꡊ ꡊꡜ ꡝ ꡊꡜꡚ ꡪꡖ ꡋ
〔ꡝ〕ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡪꡞ ꡈꡠ ᠃ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊ〔ꡜꡠ ᠃〕ꡎꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ꡎꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡠ ᠃ ꡎ ꡒꡱꡠ ꡎ ꡒꡱꡠ ᠃ ꡏ ꡜꡖ ꡎ ꡒꡱꡠ ᠃ ꡛꡟ ꡎ ꡒꡱꡠ ᠃ ꡎ
ꡒꡱꡠ ꡂꡘ ꡎꡜꡠ ᠂ ꡒ ꡗ ꡂꡘ ꡎꡜꡠ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡒ ꡗ ꡂꡘ ꡎꡜꡠ ꡎ ꡒꡱ ꡒꡧ ꡙ ꡂꡘ ꡎꡜꡠ ᠃ ꡎ ꡒꡱ ꡟꡊ ꡎꡜ ꡓꡠ ᠃ ꡎ ꡒꡱ ꡛꡏ ꡎꡜ ꡓꡠ ᠃ ꡎ
ꡒꡱꡠ ꡎ ꡒꡱꡞ ꡋꡞ ᠃ ꡎ ꡒꡱꡏ ꡎꡜ ꡓ ꡈꡟ ᠃ ꡏ ꡏ ꡚ ꡘꡞ ꡳꡘ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ᠃ ꡛ ꡈꡧꡖ ꡋꡖꡋ ꡐ ᠃ ꡀꡖ ꡗ ꡌ ꡘꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡞꡘ ᠃ ꡎꡜ ꡓ ꡈꡟ ᠃
〔…〕ꡊꡖ ꡏꡠ᠂ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡂ ꡈꡞ ᠃ ꡌ ꡘꡞ ꡚꡟꡘ ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡐ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡈ ꡉꡖ ꡂ ꡈꡚ ꡐ ꡳꡏꡖꡏ ᠃ ꡛꡋ ꡝꡚ ꡓꡖ ꡛ ꡗꡋ ꡈꡟ ᠃ ꡎꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡨ ꡎꡟꡊ
ꡊꡜꡨ ᠂ ꡛꡞꡊ ꡊꡜꡨ ꡛꡞꡊ ꡊꡜꡨ ᠃ ꡎꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ꡎꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡎꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ꡓꡞ ꡎꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡏꡡ ꡐ ꡗ ꡏꡡ ꡐ ꡗ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡏꡡ ꡐ ꡗ ꡓꡞ ꡏꡡ ꡐ ꡗ ᠃ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ
〔ꡗ〕ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ꡓꡞ ꡚꡡ ꡊꡜ ꡗ ᠃ ꡛ ꡏꡋ ꡈꡖ ꡏꡡ ꡐ ꡗ ꡏꡡ ꡐ ꡗ ᠃ ꡛ ꡏꡋ ꡈ ꡘꡚ ꡏꡞ ꡎ ꡘꡞ ꡚꡟꡊ ꡊꡜꡞ ᠃ ꡛꡘ ꡓ ꡈ ꡉꡖ ꡂ
〔ꡈ〕ꡜꡱꡞ ꡊ ꡗ ᠃ ꡝ ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡪꡖ ꡋ ꡝ ꡊꡜꡞꡚ ꡪꡖ〔ꡋ 〕᠃ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡠ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡠ ᠂ ꡏ ꡜꡖ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡠ ᠃ ꡏ ꡜꡖ ꡏꡟ ꡊꡱꡖ ꡏꡋ ꡈꡱ ꡌ ꡊꡖꡠ ꡛꡧꡖ ꡜꡖ


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