Tangut : Golden Guide [𗵒𗭭𘃎𘐏𘝞]

This page provides a summary of the contents of the Tangut verse text known as Grains of Gold Placed in the Palm (Tangut: 𗵒𗭭𘃎𘐏𘝞), referred to by Marc Miyake as the Golden Guide. The text comprises 1,000 different characters in 100 lines of 10 characters (or 200 half-lines of five characters each). The text is given in Unicode Tangut, together with a Chinese translation by Niè Hóngyīn 聂鸿音 and Shǐ Jīnbō 史金波 for the entire text, and an English translation by Marc Miyake for the first 52 lines (lines 1–104 in Marc's notation), which was published periodically in his blog between May 2010 and January 2015. Marc's translation is also accompanied by his phonetic reconstruction. Click on the English translation to go to the corresponding post in Marc's blog where he gives a detailed explication of the meaning and pronunciation of every Tangut character (or "tangraph" in Marc's terminology).


Preface

𗵒𗭭𘁨

𘍞𘓐𗫂𘝞𗧁𘖑𘘭𗌭𘝦𗨯𗅋𘓳𗬩𗅲𗅋𗥤𗌭𘕋𘄭𗇋𗮅𗫈𗪘𗵑𘕿𗨤𗵘𘖒𘅙𗏡𘈑𗗙𘘝𘉐𗵆𗑩𘘦𘔼𗑉𗙼𘜣𗋂𘄴𗧘𗈪𗺉𘙌𗎹𗰖𗨨𗡞𗏇𗅋𗰛𘏒𗋒𗕑𗧘𗑷𗪲𗼄𗼄𘙌𗌾𗏱𗐗𗐗𗈪𗆛𘏴𗴮𘊳𗥦𗱚𗌮𗧘𗜈𗅔𘌽𗍊𘓁𘟂𗫶𗓱𘇫𗴿𗮅𗴿𘓳𘎪𗅋𗤋𗧙𘕤𗣓𘕤𗂙𗡢𗰓𗋂𗏁𗏇𗣃𘜼𗥃𗍫𘉨𗵆。𘄡𘗁𗼑𘍞𗢼,𗭩𗅰𗤒𗅋𗹑。𗦻𗿸𗵒𗭭𘃎𘐏𘝞𘘣。𗭩𗪞𗫩𗅩𘓆𘉰𘟀𘅇𘉪。


Grains of Gold Preface

...

...

Five-character words match [each other], four [times] two stanzas they form.

Those who are clever and sharp [can complete the text] in a whole month exactly;

Those who are dim-witted and slow [can complete the text] in less than a year.

As to its title, Grains of Gold Placed in the Palm of One's Hand Text it is called.

I, foolish man, am embarrassed to abandon this absurd discourse, seeing its flaws without ridicule.


Main Text

𗆧𗰖𗵒𗭭𘃎𘐏𘝞𗈪𗺉

Newly-collected Grains of Gold Placed in the Palm, text in one chapter


Line Characters Text
0011–10𗹦𗼻𗯨𗐯𗂥 𗾔𗼑𗉘𘝨𗜓
1mə 2lɨə̣ 1riuʳ 2kɛ̣ 2nie | 2bəi 0lhi: 1tʃɨə 2zɔ̣ 2ʃɨa
天地世界初,日月尔时现。

Heaven [and] earth, [the] world long ago,

[The] sun and [the] moon appear [at] that time.

00211–20𗭼𗤼𗂈𗼛𘚢 𗉅𗎒𗨁𗤢𗖠
1swew 1na 1ʒɨə̣ 1tʃɛʳ 2dʒɛ | 1tsia 2dạ 2phiu 2bi 2ŋwe
明暗左右轉,熱冷上下合。

Light [and] dark, left [and] right turn,

Hot [and] cold, up [and] down [in] harmony.

00321–30𘋠𘔮𗼴𗵆𗩱 𘊡𗑝𘐡𗖵𗣲
2mə 2ʔwaʳ 1lɨẹ 1ʃɨẽ 2nwi | 2ləu 1tseʳw 1tʃɨə 1biu 1bɔ
諸物能成苗,季節依次列。

Various things can become seedling[s],

[The] seasons [and] divisions line [up] in order.

00431–40𗸴𗧐𗱈𗍍𗵃 𗴲𘞶𗀋𘆽𘍂
2nwiə 2bɪ 2ləi 1tsəiʳ 1vəi | 2dʒwɨe 2phəəu 2phɔ 1gie 2mio
春開寅卯辰,夏茂巳午未。

Spring opens: tiger, rabbit, dragon,

Summer flourishes: snake, horse, sheep.

00541–50𘌞𗫴𘂶𗿼𗗻 𗈋𗓀𗘅𘋇𗵊
1tsə̣ 1miaa 1vɨị 1dʒwɨõ 1na | 1tsuʳ 1ləu 1giu 1xwɨi 2miuu
秋實申酉戌,冬藏亥子丑。

Fruits [of] fall; monkey, bird, dog,

Winter hides; pig, rat, ox.

00651–60𗟱𗫈𘛺𘋐𘃂 𗾓𘆂𗇮𗹑𗑛
1piə 1sie 2bie 1ɣa 2vɨə̣ | 1lɨə 2lie 2raʳ 1tʃiẽ 1ziəʳ
今朝拂曉東,卓午影正南。

This morning, dawn [in the] east,

[At] noon, shadows due south.

00761–70𘋔𗪠𘋏𘀎𗂰 𗽷𗱨𘈝𗇡𗈇
2lɛ̣ 1ɣʊ 2ne 1məuʳ 2li | 2jaaʳ 2lɨuu 1ʃwɨo 2riẽ 1lɨạ
晚夕暮昏西,睡臥夜晚北。

Evenings [to the] west,

Bedding, night watch, north.

00871–80𗧣𘌫𗪘𗷝𗦎 𗾥𗨋𗏡𘙇𗄼
1na 2raʳ 1ʃɨi 2mie 2raʳ | 2sia 2ɣwə 1kəụ 2riəʳ 1lia
明日先未過,後日後到來。

Tomorrow has not yet flowed into the past,

The day after tomorrow and the day after that came later.

00981–90𗾞𘁇𗈪𗡶𗩍 𗂣𗫂𗍭𗍱𗯮
2niəə 2ʔiə 0ʔa 1ʃɨe 1vəə | 1vɨi 1tia 2lɨõ 2ziə̣ 1thwəəu
年日一律有,歲者兩俱同。

Previous days have uniformity,

Years are both [?] alike.

01091–100𗯖𗯗𗿳𗰗𗍫 𗷉𗪇𗫸𘏋𗯿
2khwəụ 2le 2dziẽ 2ɣạ 1niəə | 1ʃɨe 1bəu 2ji 1sə 1veʳ
變化時十二,月沒再滿盈。

The times of changes are twelve,

The moon wanes, then waxes again.

011101–110𘈚𗇸𗤒𘜍𗨻 𗎊𗩭𗫿𗆧𘄏
2giə 1zị 1kiew 2jaaʳ 2vəi | 1reʳ 1tʃɨõ 1kwi 1siw 2dʒɨu
夜晝為年日,腊正舊新逢。

Nights and days comprise years and dates,

The last and first months, the old and the new meet.

012111–120𗫏𘒺𘗽𘎲𗟥 𘌽𗳒𗡪𗷳𗅆
1thwị 2naʳ 2ziọ 1lhəu 1tiẹ | 2thiə 2ŋwəu 2tsew 2dʊ 2diẽ
幼老壽增減,以此定限量。

The change of longevity of the young and the old,

Thus limits were measured and settled.

013121–130𗋕𗅉𘄡𗇋𗧊 𘋨𘃡𗬩𗅲𗄈
1thia 1nɔ̃ɔ̃ 2siẹ 2mieʳ 2to | 1dzwiə 1vɨi 1kɪ 2tiẹ 1ʃwɨo
其後智者出,為帝行律則。

After that, the wise (people) arise,

And they establish commandments and rites for the emperor.

014131–140𗼨𗆟𗤳𗴮𗮅 𘈑𗫔𗔀𘈷𗆷
2ŋwəi 1mi 2mə 1die 2reʳ | 1miəʳ 1ʔi 1vɨa 2gi 2lạ
嵬名姓類多,人衆父子稠。

The tribes of the Ngwei-mi are myriad;

The people are numerous; fathers and sons are packed.

015141–150𗥃𗗚𘙌𗦳𘓦 𘉋𘑗𗖶𗑠𗉜
1lɨəəʳ 2ŋiõ 1kiə 2dziu 2liẹ | 1ʔiaʳ 1ŋəʳ 1swiə 2riʳ 1dzee
四海已統領,八山誰與爭?

The four seas are protected;

With whom do the eight mountains struggle?

016151–160𗂧𘇚𘞂𘝦𗫦 𘟙𗂸𗣫𗿒𗏴
2lhiẹ 2mii 2dziəə 0dʒɨə 1ɣɛw | 2nie 2bi 1tsẽ 2khwe 1dʒɨu
治國習學業,王臣大小分。

Administration of the nation is taught, skills are learned;

The ruler and his ministers clarify [matters?] large and small.

017161–170𗵣𗵡𗋑𗃡𗵽 𘛽𗓈𘗴𘒰𗥕
2tʃɨew 2tʃɛ 2diẽ 2piụ 2lɨuu | 2liụ 1lhwəu 2kiʳ 2zeew 2zəu
頭戴雲冠美,身服腰帶纏。

The cloud hat worn on top is beautiful.

Wrapping clothing around the body and tying belts around the waist.

018171–180𗪒𘓹𗼃𘉍𗪛 𗃵𗝂𗾈𘛃𗶠
2kəụ 2vạ 2ʃɨẽ 1bi 1dʒwɨõ | 2piụ 2riəʳ 2məəi 2ləu 2dzəəu
內宮贊聖光,殿堂坐御位。

The inner palace propagates the light of the sages,

The emperor sits on the imperial throne in the palace hall.

019181–190𘓺𘜹𗛛𗎭𗫻 𘜶𗸱𗹶𗘲𗰘
1ŋwəʳ 1dzõ 2kəụ 1mii 1dʒɨee | 2tha / 2liẹ 2no 1dʊ 2riẽ 2ʔəu
皇后後宮居,太子樓閣戲。

The emperor and empress live in the inner court,

The crown prince plays in the tower.

020191–200𗂅𗦢𗙼𘖉𗓁 𗼞𗐱𗿢𗑾𗙈
2mieʳ 2dza 2ʔiu 2khie 1mi | 2kõ 2ni 2zəuʳ 1ŋwəəu 1vɨạ
謀臣先聞奏,官人敕諭旨。

Ministers report their plans before (the emperor) and listen (to him),

The ruler (or official?) pronounces the words of an imperial edict.

021201–210𘇂𗎘𘌥𗅂𘇡 𗱕𗍁𗗥𘎵𘖗
2gəu 2bɨu 1be 1riaʳ 1thəu | 1riuʳ 2vəi 2ʒɨị 2ziẹ 0dʒɨị
中邊設拘司,諸城抽商稅。

At the middle border, the ministry of arrests was established.

Sales taxes are extracted from all cities.

022211–220𘉀𘛅𗤮𗹍𗑗 𘒏𘆝𗔼𗤱𗓦
1tsiiʳ 2dziə̣ 3nwə 2mị 1se | 1gia 1rieʳ 1ɣwe 2riẽ 2dwəəu
爵位文中書,軍馬武樞密。

The eloquence of officials and nobles; the palace secretary,

The secret strategem of army horse combat.

023221–230𘎮𗍷𗦬𘒎𗧤 𘚭𗹗𗸐𘅣𗒍
1pi 2dziẽ 2gəu 1lhiooʳ 1phia | 1vɔ 2go 2ʔɨəʳ 2dạ 2dzwiə
宰相裁公堂,御史斷常務。

The prime minster judges at court,

Clearing away, diligent, resolving matters.

024231–240𗫢𘅯𗺎𗍋𘅫 𘓉𗽈𘛔𘏆𗧗
1bə 1dziə 1tʃɨẽ 1khiəə 1tʃɨu | 1lhew 1lị 1nwiə 1siọ 1tʃhwɨẽ
取舍磨堪事,牧農二司管。

Discarding, investigating, managing,

In charge of herding and farming.

025241–250𗙀𘊆𗣼𗳦𗭍 𗕑𘂀𗅋𗛮𗤋
2biuu 2bio 2tʃɨa 1ka 1dʒɨẹ | 2khiə 2sie 1mi 1vəə 1mie
賞罰行正平,萬民無不服。

Rewards and punishments are carried out in a virtuous and fair fashion,

There were none among the myriad masses who did not submit.

026251–260𗱗𗼚𘏪𘚿𗌰 𗰔𗣠𗣵𗨞𗪐
1tʃɨẹ 2ʔõ 2dẹ 2mie 2pəụ | 2ʔiew 1diẹ 1bɛ 2lhiẹ 2kɛ
貞臥乃咩布,藥乜墨令介。

Che'on, De, Mepu

Ewde, Be, Lheke.

027261–270𗬑𗪉𗲡𗝢𘏐 𗬢𗤂𗲌𗋽𗫉
1tʃɨə 1zwị 2xəĩ 1lã 1ɣwɪ | 1gwiə 2di 1mia 2ziəəʳ 1bɛɛ
只移賀蘭勢,居地河水樂。

The power of Hinlan of Chyzwi,

The pleasure of the waters of the river of the Gwydi.

028271–280𘏻𗱲𗃛𗣆𗡰 𗩿𗡧𘁂𗔴𗸰
2riuʳ 1diụ 1lɨõ 1vị 1liaa | 2si 2dzii 2ʔia 2ʔiuʳ 1tõ
六□梁千辣,息齊野余多。

Rurdu, Lon, Vi, La, (or Rurdu, Lon people, La),

Sidzi, Ya, Yur, Ton.

029281–290𗥬𘀄𗙹𗋙𘝙 𗥵𗬆𗰰𗓚𗊻
1ʔie 2giuu 2lhõʳ 2vɨə 1dzõ | 2khə 1phəi 2kiʳ 2ma 2ʃɨo
瓔玉浪勿即,骨婢雙麻尚。

Yegu, Lhorn, Vydzon,

Khypi, Kir, Masho.

030291–300𘅚𗯦𗁠𘃣𗆌 𗥰𗥝𗤦𗤿𗙴
1dẽ 2lɨẽ 2võ 2vɨi 1bəu | 2lɨa 1dəəu 2ʃɨə 1lhiə 1raʳ
乃令臥衛慕,連奴攝勒囉。

Denlen, Von, Vibu,

Ladu, Shy, Lhyrar.

031301–310𘊕𘎙𗦰𘂠𗣹 𘜻𘞰𘛀𗸹𗭫
0dʒ-? 2khɛw 1ʃɨaʳ 1lõ 2tsi | 1phæ 2lɨi 2biee 2siə 1pi
??然羅跡,芭里𠵴西壁。

Jikhew, Shar, Lontsi,

Phali, Be, Sypi.

032311–320𗁍𗤹𘝕𗑫𘔒 𘚦𗣑𗯶𗨵𗣱
1bɨu 1ɣiu 2ne 1bə 2nie | 2bia 2dʊ 2ma 1kwiə̣ 0dzị
鋪藥乃沒年,味奴??齊。

Bughu, Ne, Byne,

Badu, Ma, Kwydzi.

033321–330𘜈𘑼𗒅𗥺𗓧 𗒑𗂩𘜇𘉘𗓔
1dʒɔ 2roʳ 1ʃɨəʳ 1ŋwəə 1ɣa | 2ʔiə 1riuʳ 1tʃhɔ 2zəʳ 1tshie
??什兀罨,野隆床𠼪青。

Joror, Shyr, Ngwygha,

Yrur, Chho, Zyrtshe.

034331–340𗔹𗮖𗫃𘋺𗛹 𗹸𘕼𘅊𗒔𗎁
1ʔieʳ 2ʃwɨi 1phõ 1ʃɨõõ 1tshõ | 1lhɔ̃ɔ̃ 2giu 1le 2ŋiõ 2riʳ
拽稅坡叔蒼,良玉來臥利。

Ershwi, Phon, Shontshon,

Lhon'gu, Le, Ngonrir.

035341–350𗥡𗤕𘉗𗢻𗫲 𗥚𗳩𗍾𗎯𘑻
2ləu 1tsã 1ʔɔ̃ 2məi 1khie | 2zwị 1swie 2vɨe 2vɨu 2dị
魯贊藥格契,𠼪訛永勿泥。

Lutsan, On, Mikhe,

Zwiswe, Ve, Vudi.

036351–360𗩙𘄀𗸟𗩫𗂓 𗣡𗍀𘛯𗑐𗒉
2khie 1tʃɨu 1gaa 1miəə 1tew | 1ʃɨõ 2ɣʊ 1gəəu 2lew 1la
鋪主閼女斗,特吳五柳來。

Khechu, Ga, Mytew,

Shonghu? / Dyghu?, Gu, Lewla.

037361–370𗯒𘂋𗃞𗗿𗴂 𗧇𗿿𗏥𘎧𗰞
2tsha 2zəi 1kə 1ta 1phɔ̃ | 2lwəʳ 1die 2lɨuu 1va 1nɨaa
操𠼪小狗白,冷寧妙訛黑。

Tshazi, white puppy,

Lwyrde, Lu, Vana (?).

038371–380𗦗𗰦𗹿𗥼𗐐 𘄍𘇜𗹻𘖌𘁛
2so 1lwo 1de 0ʔa 1xiõ | 2ba 2bəi 1dew 2miə 1ziə̣
桑羅耨阿香,播杯乃兒童。

Solwo, De, Ahon,

Babi, Dew, Myzy (?).

039381–390𗼎𗾧𗹡𗄎𘕂 𗚷𗟓𗭞𗄖𘙊
2miə 2nɨaa 1kiʳ 2lị 1dʒɨe | 1tʃhɨə 1tã 2bi 0dʒɨi 2lwəi
彌藥勇健行,契丹步履緩。

The brave and strong Tangut (Minya) go on parade;

The Khitan walk slowly.

040391–400𘐀𘜗𗢳𗗆𗴢 𘂜𗄊𗪙𘝞𘟠
1phə 2miaa 1tha 1səĩ 1biuu | 1zaʳ 2zi 1məuʳ 2ʔwɨəʳ 1dzəu
羌多敬佛僧,漢皆愛俗文。

Many Tibetans respect Buddhist monks;

The Chinese all like vulgar writing.

041401–410𗬋𗬊𗌙𗤰𗋁 𗄽𗱀𘌄𗦿𗠼
1ɣwe 1ɣwə 1lhiu 2tshwiəʳ 2die | 1ʃæ̃ 1ʔo 1ɣõ 1piẽ 2lɨee
回鶻飲乳漿,山訛嗜蕎餅。

The Uyghur drink whey,

The Shan-O are addicted to buckwheat cakes.

042411–420𘑲𗷮𗕌𗤛𘅧 𘝾𘕹𘛫𘄊𘒂
1tʃɨõ 1võ 1ʒɨĩ 1tʃɨõ 1kwi | 2lɨi 1tʃhɨew 1lɨew 1lɨi 1xæ
張王任鐘季,李趙劉黎夏。

Chon, Von, Zhin, Chon, Kwi,

Li, Chhew, Lew, Li, Ha.

043421–430𘄱𗶩𗳷𗁬𗣭 𗩇𘈫𗵸𗤩𗶃
1thiẽ 2thi 1tʃhɨụ 1thõ 1tshĩ | 1vəĩ 2ʔəu 1xie 1ɣwiã 2tʃɨi
田狄褚唐秦,溫武邢袁枝。

Then, Thi, Chhu, Thon, Tshin,

Vin, U, He, Ghwan, Chi.

044431–440𗷭𗷲𗁬𗼽𗑃 𗶡𗥻𗱭𗞖𘐤
1kĩ 1gĩ 2tha 2sew 1tʃɨi | 1xʊ 1phɛ 2ʃɨew 1xwĩ 1tshwe
金嚴陶蕭甄,胡白邵封崔。

Kin, Gin, Tha, Sew, Chi,

Hu, Phe, Shew, Hwin, Tshwe.

045441–450𗜫𗊧𗏆𘍑𗓽 𗬐𗌔𘀏𗍏𗜪
1si 1tʃhwɨã 1xwiã 1lɨẽ 1lo | 1sə 2thwã 1pəu 2siu 1lew
息傳范廉羅,司段薄徐婁。

Si, Chhwan, Hwan, Len, Lo,

Sy, Thwan, Pu (Pho?), Su, Lew.

046451–460𗽕𗽮𗑰𘕘𗣛 𗭯𗕾𗂎𘌜𗩩
2kɔ̃ 1na 1tshe 1tsə 1kew | 1yõ 1kiu 2tshiẽ 1pɪ 2vɨã
江南蔡子高,羊鞠錢伯萬。

Kon, Nan, Tshe, Tsy, Kew,

Yon, Ku, Tshen, Pi, Van.

047461–470𗌃𗣟𗗧𗃠𗰍 𘂦𗫍𗼵𗽰𗦃
1təũ 1vieʳ 1kæ 2nee 1dʒɛw | 1xã 1ʃɨi 1xiõ 2bəəu 2xwe
董隋賈迺卓,韓石方穆回。

Tun, Wei, Jia, Nai, Zhuo,

Han, Shi, Feng/Fang/Xiang, Mu, Hui.

048471–480𗺁𗉔𘓾𘊇𗌵 𗰂𗥑𗄋𘍨𗷌
2xɛ̃ 1tʃɨw 1ʔiã 2ʃɨõ 1kiõ | 2xwo (2ɣwo?) 1xəu 1ʐɨi 2xi 1təi
解周燕商龔,何傅兒奚德。

Xie, Zhou, Yan, Shang/Chang, Gong/Jiang,

He, Fu, Er, Xi, De.

049481–490𗑌𘝻𗑪𗴼𗇊 𘏸𗨝𘎫𗐾𗊡
1kɛ 1kwo 1kwĩ 2khiew 2thie | 1ʂʌ 1ʂɨĩ 1ki 1swəĩ 1xa
耿郭君邱鐵,史申嵇孫合。

Geng, Guo, Jun, Qiu, Tie,

Shi, Shen, Ji, Sun/Song, He.

050491–500𗊛𗚿𗤡𗫐𘝗 𘟒𗜀𗊺𘃻𘔜
1tshew 2lɨew 1gii 1səu 1jew | 2xwəi 1tsew 2xa 1ĩ 1tʂhɨĩ
曹陸倪蘇姚,渾酒和殷陳。

Cao, Lu, Ni, Su, Yao,

Hui, Jiu, He, Yin, Chen.

051501–510𗒫𗭴𗪨𘊴𗋖 𘚥𘓣𗒯𗦵𗨍
1giw' 1ʔjø̃ 2mɤe 1thu 2kɤa | 2lɨu 2bɤa' 1khi 1pʌ 1xwɤa
牛杨孟杜家,吕马杞不华。

Niu, Yang, Meng, Du, Jia,

Lü, Ma, Qi, Bu, Hua.

052511–520𗽭𗱒𗜰𗾶𗘼 𗳟𗳶𗓷𘑣𗐹
2khew 1gɤe' 1tsũ ?kø̃ 1gy | 1ven1 1chhi2 1khwan4 2se4 1an1
寇婴宗许虞,韦翟权薛安。

Kou, Yi(ng?), Zong, Jiang, Yu,

Wei, Zhai, Quan, Xue, An.

053521–530𘅰𘃳𗟤𗬭𗊄 𗺹𗁪𗰹𗳣𗦺
吴九邹聂丁,侯窦左糜潘。

054531–540𘄋𘗧𗖏𗨤𘟂 𗶚𗼍𘖏𗩹𗅔
为婚是旧仪,亲戚从今非。

055541–550𗦡𗷾𗣃𘒥𗷇 𘁶𗜌𗩨𘄽𗤄
媒人奉承美,集体问姿容。

056551–560𘔫𗴽𗼕𘋟𘋻 𗁜𗍂𗄑𘋩𗫡
贫富福高低,吃穿处处至。

057561–570𗚉𘛢𗾖𗡸𗋅 𗡄𘋳𘝵𗯩𘋦
民庶男女混,衣食己方谋。

058571–580𗴟𗐎𘄄𘃾𗖍 𗴺𘖖𗕪𗧎𘇒
爹爹子孙颂,娘娘女妹惜。

059581–590𗃆𘔯𘊻𗓢𘗕 𗑇𗀇𗓉𗵑𗖭
迎媳婆母安,得婿岳公喜。

060591–600𘗠𗯴𘓐𗿦𗄻 𗞝𘒣𗔒𗪯𗋳
门下妇人知,外情夫君管。

061601–610𗗌𗅁𗘂𗍟𗙿 𗫌𗬫𘝚𗵢𘀂
家内狗守护,家外盗贼离。

062611–620𗟀𘏒𗁅𘅇𗋐 𘑄𘂆𘋫𘖑𗳢
贷支手勿入,禁亦不可偏。

063621–630𘒹𘍞𗣷𘞙𘞚 𘞙𗂆𘞫𘃸𘘘
增者足加倍,获利独满贯。

064631–640𗃰𘐾𗻤𗅎𗖤 𘏲𗧛𗡦𗙲𘏠
搅海寻珊瑚,选择串璎络。

065641–650𗵁𗊏𗲈𗐴𘍧 𗳔𗶧𗳑𘑢𗔨
钿珠玉耳环,钗箄簪腕钏。

066651–660𗵒𘊟𘀭𘏨𗿷 𗆄𗹭𗔇𗜦𗔠
金银珍宝多,价高库进出。

067661–670𗭄𗭀𗬻𘖙𗒜 𗍅𗾤𗅭𘅤𗂶
绫罗锦褐裹,召工裁画缝。

068671–680𗵩𗊬𗨬𘖎𘝇 𘗷𘅸𘙲𘌅𗵐
襖子短小合,裙裤长宽宜。

069681–690𗏩𘄚𗏘𗅾𗹰 𗭓𗺏𘅗𗭒𘋯
兜肚围胸肋,鞋袜套脚胫。

070691–700𗀐𘙧𘘤𗓺𘇞 𗼮𗬟𗻡𗓴𗓶
寒裘皮??,雨披毯褐衫。

071701–710𗐲𗳀𘇹𘑒𗡱 𗁲𘁀𘉷𘀿𘐊
绵麻线袋细,毛毡褐囊粗。

072711–720𘕰𗰸𗃔𘟬𗥦 𘎬𘗋𗆨𗪺𘞯
断树斧斤头,芟割壮工镰。

073721–730𗽁𗚜𗉺𘂯𘄴 𗇈𗰷𘐬𗜽𗋂
烧瓦要沙著,洗麻须杖敲。

074731–740𘖯𘗂𘛈𘛇𗜆 𗝎𘐋𘏹𗜻𗜾
铛鼎器皿盔,碗匙筷子勺。

075741–750𗿅𗑟𗟇𗊖𗪟 𘚕𗠇𘌐𘌕𗰁
姻友茶酒先,近食米面堪。

076751–760𗰃𗆀𘟌𗜨𗟑 𘟡𘝖𗒞𗢫𗌘
盐巴椒芜荑,酥油菜乳酪。

077761–770𗞣𘁐𗷬𘆤𘃝 𘅮𗲳𗸳𗷆𘜬
耕牛遣僮喂,碓硙使仆槌。

078771–780𗇇𗀒𗖰𗚩𗗈 𗡚𘃪𗅖𘈈𗭻
和尚诵经契,斋毕待布施。

079781–790𗥞𗹙𗵫𗼈𗴿 𗦻𗖟𗏣𘕴𘈨
道士祷星神,唱名示边隅。

080791–800𘛡𗀔𗐽𗸦𘗒 𗴨𘐩𗼡𗦹𘒇
筵上乐人呼,丧葬巫客侍。

081801–810𗣂𗾿𘆻𘜯𗗣 𗸺𗤞𘗶𗶤𗓨
珂贝鞍桥买,帐幕马毡寻。

082811–820𘎗𗮆𘟞𘟫𗜈 𗳳𗀚𗩵𘕿𗶷
弓箭刀剑执,伴导运输往。

083821–830𗻧𘌋𘌙𘞵𗧪 𘌑𘌉𘌖𘇲𗏻
来牟豆长大,粟黍秫熟迟,

084831–840𗵞𘌎𘘔𗝏𗚻 𘖾𘟪𘏬𗰚𗍬
斛豆衡斗升,鍮铁称斤两。

085841–850𘇽𗬼𗁞𗀻𘑐 𗫤𘜔𗄾𗪕𘏫
褐绢量尺寸,大数估算得。

086851–860𘁟𗂙𗿸𘞪𘈩 𗌾𗏱𗡞𘊝𗦲
分别号独一,结合千百亿。

087861–870𘃃𘃁𗁮𗊴𗠣 𗗶𗗱𗝚𗉝𘕤
熊罴食血肉,狐狸寻茅草。

088871–880𗰆𘖂𗝠𗓰𘄔 𗲞𗅺𘟀𗈱𗣈
鹿獐树深逃,山羊见而出。

089881–890𗣎𗊓𗌹𘚽𗳪 𘕺𗊯𗫑𗣖𗠰
泉源兽奔绕,渠井牲畜饮。

090891–900𗗵𗅠𗜍𗁷𗣓 𗅻𗂽𘙣𗈶𗧙
釐牛射杀难,羖𦍠屠宰易。

091901–910𘆮𗔩𘃿𘀤𗸆 𘆦𘊹𗫾𗽜𗤨
运货驼骆强,驮重毛驴弱。

092911–920𘓸𘝆𘝁𘝍𗇅 𗇼𗈟𗅡𗖚𘞤
鹰雕羽翼窄,顽羊角牴宽。

093921–930𗺱𗗺𗠉𗽿𗉖 𗢸𘐙𘘄𘟗𗹠
鼠狼唇尖细,口巧齿牙灵。

094931–940𗔓𗀓𗟫𘆏𗆮 𗞞𘓯𗌮𗝿𗒐
索借贷归还,给予实接受。

095941–950𗃮𗖖𗅮𗢴𗌭 𗹬𘓟𗏶𘓤𗟻
诉状陈告故,情愿令卜筮。

096951–960𗱽𘞹𗕹𗷾𘅍 𘒩𗠪𗖜𘔨𗴐
准备对答时,指示催促?。

097961–970𘄇𗄭𘜤𘊐𗴛 𘍴𗏫𘞌𗠷□
点集速予贿,注册重分别。

098971–980𘂱𘂁𗏺𗮒𗕽 𗗦𘔭𗉡𗆊𗘢
成色虽迷惑,价钱参差明。

099981–990𘗜𗫞𗘯𗡢𗡠 𗹳𗁦𗺉𘗐𘐏
官吏亦搜求,官册本当置。

100991–1000𘎤𗓱𗋸𘚌𗃣 𗴒𘟣𘎆𗶅𗓑
倘若有住滞,敬相守护之。


End Title and Colophon

𗵒𗭭𘁨𗈪𘐳 𘃪

𘌽𗺉𘅤𗇋𘁂𗰔𘄒𘎑𗯿𗩭𗼑𗥃𗬥𘅤𘃪

𘈩𗢶𘜏?

𗵒𗭭𘁨𗈪𘐳𘃪…


Grains of Gold [with] preface in one volume, finished

This volume written by A'ew Prajñā Flourishing, on the fourth day of the first lunar month the writing was completed.

Proof-read one time

End of Grains of Gold [with] preface in one volume. [...]



Versions of the Tangut Text

The following manuscript and xylograph versions of the Tangut text of Grains of Gold Placed in the Palm are known to me:



Practice Pieces

Grains of Gold Placed in the Palm was commonly used by students to practice writing Tangut characters, and at least fifteen fragments of manuscript practice pieces covering the entire poem from preface to end-title, are known in the collections of the British Library (BL) and the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts (IOM), as summarized below. Each character in the entire text was written out in large characters along the top of the paper, and the student would copy out each character twenty or thirty times in a column below. See my blog post Grains of Gold (May 2015) for more details.


Pressmark Extent Characters
BL: Or. 12380/3558 Preface #35–43

𗵆𗑩𘘦𘔼𗑉

𗙼𘜣𗋂𘄴

BL: Or. 12380/3517 Preface #105–114

𗥃𗍫𘉨𗵆𘄡

𘗁𗼑𘍞𗢼𗭩

BL: Or. 12380/2625
BL: Or. 12380/39 81–84

𗾞𘁇𗈪𗡶

BL: Or. 12380/36 88–92

𗍭𗍱𗯮𗯖𗯗

BL: Or. 12380/73
BL: Or. 12380/306 (F) recto 315–316

𘔒𘚦

BL: Or. 12380/3540 recto (315), 318–319

𗯶𗨵

BL: Or. 12380/306 (F) verso 330–331

𗓔𗔹

IOM: Inv. No. 4597 358–375

𘛯𗑐𗒉𗯒𘂋

𗃞𗗿𗴂𗧇𗿿

𗏥𘎧𗰞𗦗𗰦

𗹿𗥼𗐐

BL: Or. 12380/2623 371–378

𗦗𗰦𗹿𗥼𗐐

𘄍𘇜𗹻

BL: Or. 12380/2624
BL: Or. 12380/3668 (C) verso 485–493

𘏸𗨝𘎫𗐾𗊡

𗊛𗚿𗤡

BL: Or. 12380/3668 (C) recto 497–504

𗜀𗊺𘃻𘔜𗒫

𗭴𗪨𘊴

BL: Or. 12380/2079 934–936

𘆏𗆮𗞞

BL: Or. 12380/2078 937–941

𘓯𗌮𗝿𗒐𗃮

BL: Or. 12380/354 recto 973–978, 980–981

𗏺𗮒𗕽𗗦𘔭

𗉡[𗆊]𗘢𘗜

BL: Or. 12380/365 recto
BL: Or. 12380/354 verso End title

𗵒𗭭𘁨𗈪𗺉

𗞞𘃪

BL: Or. 12380/365 verso


Textual Notes

The Tangut transcription above is based on the text given in IOM Inv. No. 741, which is the only surviving complete text. The following notes indicate variant readings and glyph forms in the source texts and in Nie & Shi's 1995 study.